The Bosnian Pyramid, Visocica Hill, is the first European pyramid to be discovered. It is located in the heart of Bosnia, in the town of Visoko. The structure has all the classic elements: four perfectly shaped slopes pointing toward the cardinal points, a flat top and an entrance complex. At 720 feet high, it stands about one and a half times taller than the Great Pyramid of Giza. On the top of the pyramid are also the ruins of a Medieval walled town, once the base of a Bosnian king, Tvrtko of Kotromanic (1338-1391). Because of its similarities to the Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacan, Mexico, it has been named the "Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun". There are also four more ancient structures on the site: the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon, Bosnian Pyramid of the Dragon, Bosnian Pyramid of Love and Temple of the Earth.
The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun
Dr. Semir OsmanagicDr. Semir "Sam" Osmanagic, who has been called the "Bosnian Indiana Jones", was born in that country and now resides in the United States. He is credited with the discovery of the Visoko pyramid complex. During his first trip to the area in 2005, Osmanagic noticed the precise geometric appearance of the region's hills. To him they seemed clearly man-made. Subsequent research revealed that the hillsides were not only symmetrical, they also aligned to the points of the compass—north, south, east and west; and the Pyramids of the Sun, Moon and Dragon form a perfect equilateral triangle with 2.170 meters between their tops
Osmanagic began exploratory digs in the area and soon confirmed the existence of stone tiles and other man-made structures across the site, possibly dating back to the Ice Age. Osmanagic says: "We have already dug out stone blocks which I believe are covering the pyramid." He established a non-profit foundation to undertake further excavation of the site. (More at www.bosnianpyramidofthesun.com.)
There is still some controversy as to whether the structures were in fact created by ancient humans or are naturally occurring geological features called "flatirons" with man-made structures built into them.
In 2007 Egyptologist Nabil Mohamed Swelim visited Visoko. His report, publicised by the Archeological Park, agreed with Osmanagic's finding that the Pyramid of the Sun was the world's largest pyramid. Swelim concluded, "Arguments in favour or in disfavour have no effect on the fact that the pyramid concept and the properties are there for everyone to see." However, in 2010 he released a report in which he clarified that he does not claim it is man-made pyramid, but rather that he uses the term for any feature, natural or artificial, which is a geometric pyramid, but he does not exclude the possibility it is man-made.
Additional research will no doubt reveal more. Meanwhile, regardless of the structures' origins, many interesting archeological discoveries have been made on the site.
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Here are some of the artifacts that were discovered here in the past 3 years:
A stone wheel, the first artifact found in the KTK tunnels (shown on the map below), has attracted a lot of public attention. The material that composes this wheel is marl and sandstone and it has diameter of one meter. Its width is 15-17 cm. It was found in the right-side tunnel at 17 meters length during the removal of the debris.
Parts of this wheel were also found at a depth of 1.20 - 1.50 meters within the landslide material. During the removal of the debris, parts of this wheel were carefully separated from marl and clay, where they were found. These parts have been pieced together.
This stone block was discovered in the Ravne tunnel complex, a labyrinth of underground passages to the northeast of the Sun Pyramid site, with two moulds containing traces of oxidized molten metal. The composition of this stone is not the same as the materials found in the tunnel.
Artificial glass lump (right) also found during the Ravne tunnel excavation. At 110 meters from the entrance, workers found this forged glass lump. Its age is still to be determined.
Megalith K-1 (left) was the first megalith found that contains what appears to be an ancient writings.
An initial interpretation of megalith K-1 suggests it may be a diagram of the pyramid complex itself, as shown by this map overlay:
Another carved stone mould containing traces of molten oxidized metal. It was found during the excavation works in tunnel Ravne at a distance of 130 meters, just before another tunnel intersection.
The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun was the location where yet another sandstone megalith with markings has been found (shown below). At this time the experts are not trying to interpret the signs but rather let the public come to it's own conclusions. What we have here is just another piece of evidence of an ancient civilization. One thing that seems consistent is the sign resembling the letter "E" which we saw on several locations in Tunnel Ravne and on Visoko plate.
The removal of the debris from the underground tunnels is ongoing and with the use of gravel filtration technique in the Ravne location, another stone artifact was found (below). It looks like a stone shell and could be possibly man made. Samples were taken which will be sent for further archaeological analysis.
Two-sided human foot (below), found in the uncovered paved northern part of the plateau of the Toprakalia hill, in Gornje Vratnice, near Visoko, 3 feet under the ground.
200 meters from the Ravne tunnel entrance another megalith block was found underneath 60 cm of debris that was removed while clearing the tunnel. Its length is approximately 2 meters. New writings were found, which can be seen on the photographs. This block was photographed, then covered to protect it at its original location. Foundation workers expect that by mid-October this part of tunnel will be available and safe to visit by general public.
Discovered on May 6th this artifact speaks for itself. At this time it has not yet been dated, but it is obvious that it was part of something greater. It was moved from it's original location most probably several times and traces are found hinting that it was worked on for further incorporation.
Various web sites devoted to the excavation and its findings include many more photos and descriptions of the interesting objects that have been found so far. See the links below.
Parts of the site are open to tourists, and every summer people from all over the world come to Visoko to work on the excavation. If you'd like to visit or volunteer, the people of Bosnia welcome you.
Dr. Osmanagic explains his hypothesis about the origins of
the Bosnian pyramids.
- Wikipedia - Bosnian Pyramids - Informational article including evidence for and against the pyramids as manmade structures.
- The Archeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation - Sam Osmanagic's non-profit foundation formed to promote and support the pyramid excavation project. Includes maps, photo gallery, videos, media coverage and more.
- bosnian-pyramid.com - Bosnian Pyramid tourism site, includes news, information, photo gallery and virtual tour.
- "The Mystery of Bosnia's Ancient Pyramids" - Smithsonian magazine article.
Photos courtesy of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation.